Incorporation of exemestane into ternary nanosponge system for enhanced anti-tumor potential in breast cancer
The present investigation reports the potential of exemestane loaded cyclodextrin based nanosponges for the treatment of breast cancer. Fourier transform infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed the encapsulation of ring B, C, and D of exemestane in the nanosponge cavity. In vitro studies demonstrated a 6.58-folds increase in the aqueous solubility and a 1.76-folds increase in the dissolution of exemestane in the optimized nanosponge formulation EF2. It also exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cell line. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed a 1.37-fold increase in Cmax and a 2.10-fold increase in oral bioavailability of EF2, as compared to its marketed product Aromasin®. Concomitantly, this nano-formulation reduced the tumor burden to 45.71% in a DMBA-induced breast cancer rat model. This EF2-treatment also improved the hematological parameters of the animals. Histopathology of breast tissue also presented reduction in characteristic cytoarchitectural features of breast tumor. In vivo toxicity studies demonstrated reduced hepatotoxicity of the nanosponge formulation when compared with Aromasin®. These results were further supported by histological studies of excised liver tissues, where the size of hepatocytes in EF2-treated animals was like the normal hepatocyte size. In conclusion, the encapsulation of exemestane in β-cyclodextrin nanosponge along-with HPMC E5 improved its aqueous solubility, bioavailability, and ultimately therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of breast cancer.