Role of diet in osteoporosis incidence: Umbrella review of meta-analyses of prospective observational studies
An umbrella review and meta-analysis were conducted to summarize evidence for the association between dietary factors and the incidence of osteoporosis in adults. Only systematic reviews or meta-analyses were eligible for this study. Two researchers independently performed reading, data extraction, and quality evaluation of the included literature. The outcomes included in this study were all associated with osteoporosis, including osteoporotic fractures and low bone density. A total of 54 studies were included in this study, with 83 adjusted hazard ratios on diet, dairy group (n = 13), alcohol (n = 2), tea (n = 6), coffee (n = 3), micronutrient (n = 31), dietary pattern (n = 21), and foods (n = 7) regarding the incidence of osteoporosis. Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) quality assessment method was used in this study. The high, medium, low and very low quality studies accounted for 27.7, 41, 21.7 and 9.6% of this study, respectively. Based on the included literature studies in this umbrella review, it was found that dietary factors have a relevant impact on the incidences of human osteoporosis, appropriate consumption of dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and micronutrients, as well as reduced intake of alcohol and coffee, can reduce the risk of osteoporosis.