Side effects based network construction and drug repositioning of ropinirole as a potential molecule for Alzheimer’s disease: an in-silico, in-vitro, and in-vivo study
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in older adults. Drug repositioning is a process of finding new therapeutic applications for existing drugs. One of the methods in drug repositioning is to use the side-effect profile of a drug to identify a new therapeutic indication. The drugs with similar side-effects may act on similar biological targets and could affect the same biochemical process. In this study, we explored the Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs using PROMISCUOUS database to find those that have adverse effects profile comparable with the ligands being studied or used to treat AD. Here, we found that the ropinirole, a dopamine receptor agonist, shared a maximum number of side-effects with the drugs proven beneficial for treating AD. Furthermore, molecular modelling demonstrated that ropinirole exhibited strong binding affinity (−9.313 kcal/mol) and best ligand efficiency (0.49) with sigma-1 receptor. Here, we observed that the quaternary amino group of ropinirole is essential for binding with sigma-1 receptor. Molecular dynamic simulation indicated that the movement of the carboxy-terminal helices (α4/α5) could play a major role in the receptor’s physiological functions. The neurotoxicity induced by Aβ25–35 in SH-SY5Y cells was reduced by ropinirole at concentrations 10, 30, and 50 µM. The effect on spatial learning and memory was examined in mice with Aβ25–35 induced memory deficit using the radial arm maze. Ropinirole (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly improved the short and long-term memories in the radial arm maze test. Our results suggest that ropinirole has the potential to be repositioned for AD treatment.
Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma