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Production of bioflocculant from Klebsiella pneumoniae: Evaluation of fish waste extract as substrate and flocculation performance
The bioflocculant producing bacterial strain – UKD24 was isolated from the domestic sewage treatment plant. The isolated strain was identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The K. pneumoniae UKD24 showed remarkable flocculation rates when grown with the carbon sources namely glucose, sucrose and lactose, and many commercial nitrogen sources. Furthermore, the fish waste extract (FE) was used to enhance the productivity of the bioflocculant as a nitrogen supplement and it showed significant level of flocculation rate similar to the commercial nitrogen sources. The Box-Behnken experiments were designed to predict the optimal conditions for bioflocculant production and it suggested that glucose - 3.247 g L-1, FE - 0.5 g L-1 and inoculum size - 1% are the suitable levels for bioflocculant production. The FTIR analysis of the bioflocculant showed the functional groups related to the polysaccharides and the EEM analysis showed the fluorescence components related to the proteins and humic acids. The biochemical composition of the bioflocculant was identified as polysaccharides (24.36 ± 1.5%) and protein (12.15 ± 0.2%). The tested optimum conditions of the bioflocculant to induce flocculation were tested in the kaolin wastewater and it showed the optimum dosage of flocculant was 5 mg L-1 and the pH range was broad as 5 to 10. The cation dependency tests revealed that the monovalent and divalent cations are highly suitable for flocculation while the trivalent cations showed a moderate flocculation. The Cr(VI) removal efficiency of the bioflocculant showed that ∼35% of heavy metal is trapped into flocks during the flocculation.