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Sustainable and low-cost Ocimum gratissimum for biosorption of indigo carmine dye: kinetics, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies
In the quest for a sustainable environment and clean water resources, the efficacy of Ocimum gratissimum leave (OGL) for indigo carmine (IC) dye biosorption was studied in a batch technique. The physicochemical properties of OGL supported its suitability for biosorption studies. Of 92.6% removal efficiency was achieved at optimum conditions of pH 2, contact time 120 min, initial IC concentration 500 ppm, temperature 298 K, and 100 mg OGL dose. Kinetic data were best fitted to pseudo second-order (PSO) and the mechanism was pore diffusion governed as validated by sum of square error (SSE) and non-linear chi-square (χ2). Freundlich isotherm model gave the best description at 298 K as supported by Halsey, Redlich–Peterson, and Fowler–Guggenheim confirming the heterogeneous nature of OGL and multilayer biosorption process. Langmuir Qmax (77.52 mg g−1) surpassed those previously reported. SEM and EDX confirmed the reality of the biosorption process. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS°, ΔG°, and Ea) affirm a feasible, spontaneous, exothermic, and randomness of the process. Results revealed that OGL is a potential and efficient environmentally benign, low cost, and sustainable biosorbents. It is therefore recommended as a bi-functional biosorbent for wastewater treatment.