A novel human lncRNA SANT1 cis-regulates the expression of SLC47A2 by altering SFPQ/E2F1/HDAC1 binding to the promoter region in renal cell carcinoma

SLC47A2 encodes MATE 2-K in the kidney, which mediates the secretion of certain endogenous and exogenous compounds. SLC47A2 was dramatically repressed in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and a lower level of SLC47A2 might act as a negative prognostic marker, although the mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism via which SLC47A2 is downregulated in RCC. Based on the annotation information of the SLC47A2 locus available in the UCSC genome browser database, we identified a novel lncRNA, which is transcribed from the SLC47A2 locus and named it SANT1. Overexpression and knock-down assays were performed to investigate the effects of SANT1 on cis-regulation of SLC47A2. We verified the direct binding between SANT1 and SFPQ/E2F1/HDAC1 using the cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to confirm the molecular mechanism via which SANT1 activates the transcription of the SLC47A2 coding region. We observed that SANT1 can cis-regulate its own genetic locus. In tumour-adjacent tissues, the SLC47A2 locus highly expresses SANT1, which can remove the regulatory SFPQ/E2F1/HDAC1 suppressor complex from the promoter region, thereby significantly increasing the levels of the H3K27ac modification and RNAPII binding. Owing to a low SANT1 level, the binding of this inhibitory complex in the promoter region is upregulated in RCC, which results in silencing of the SLC47A2 coding region. In conclusion, we identified a novel lncRNA and elucidated the mechanism via which it regulates SLC47A2 expression in RCC.