Characterization of infectious bronchitis virus D181, a new serotype (GII-2)
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This paper describes the characterization of a new infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain D181, that rapidly evolved from a low-level incidental finding in 2017 to become the second most isolated IBV strain in Dutch layers and breeders in 2018, as well as being found in samples from Germany and Belgium. Based on the sequence of the S gene and the results of cross-neutralization tests, D181 can be considered as a new serotype and the second lineage within genotype II (GII-2). The experimental infection of SPF hens confirmed the ability of D181 to cause a drop in egg production, and immunohistochemistry showed presence of the virus in the trachea, lung and conjunctiva at 5 days post inoculation and in the caecal tonsils at 5 and 8 days post inoculation. In silico analysis of several widely used PCR primers indicated that primer sets adapted for GII might be needed to detect D181, as many general S1 primers might miss it.