Cost-effective and eco-friendly synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles using fruit’s peel agro-waste extracts: characterization, in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activities

Biosynthetic procedure is the best alternative to the preparation of nonmaterials as the challenges faced by the scientist from the last few decades. Present research reports cost-effective, inexpensive eco-friendly synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using a methanolic extract of fruits peel agro-waste. X-ray diffraction spectrum of identified TiO2NPs found noncrystalline in nature. Fourier transform infrared showed O–H, C = O, C–O, and C–H functional groups present in the fruit peel involved in the biosynthesis of TiO2NPs. The prominent peak at 1708, 1720 and 1700 cm−1 observed in the spectrum attributed to O–Ti–O stretching in Plum, Kiwi and Peach mediated TiO2NPs. The SEM images of all three TiO2NPs revealed cylindrical in shape. The size of TiO2NPs synthesized from Plum, Kiwi and Peach were found to be 47.1 and 63.2, 54.1 and 85.1 and 200 nm, respectively. All the TiO2NPs exhibited size- and dose-dependent antibacterial and antioxidant activities.