Foliar application of urea to Tempranillo vines increased the amino acid concentration of the must

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fertilisation with foliar urea of Vitis vinifera var. Tempranillo on the concentration of amino acids in must and on their evolution during the final stage of grape ripening. Foliar urea fertilisation increased the concentration of amino nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) in Tempranillo must. In addition, fertilisation with foliar urea produced an increase in the concentration of many amino acids in the must. This increase was especially noticeable in the case of the most important amino acids for yeast metabolism throughout the alcoholic fermentation (arginine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, histidine, serine and lysine). After comparing the results of this study with other ones, we may state that: in order to increase the amino acid concentration in must, it is important to apply the urea several times instead of making just one single application. Moreover, it is important to use a preparation of urea without biuret, which is a phytotoxic carbamyl urea formed as a condensation product arising from urea thermal decomposition.