Heterogeneous esterification kinetics of isopropyl oleate synthesis under non-ionizing excitation using nano-anatase imbued mesoporous catalyst
Performance of a green, cost-effective bio-hydroxyapatite (derived from waste Suidae bone) supported nano-anatase catalyst, has been investigated in the synthesis of isopropyl oleate (IPO) in presence of non-ionizing (NI) excitation. FTIR, XRD, SEM, TGA, BET, NH3-TPD and TEM methods were employed to characterize the catalyst. At identical optimal operating conditions, esterification results demonstrated the energy-efficient augmentation in catalytic performance under NI excitation (OA conversion: 93 ± 2%) compared to the orthodox heating system (OA conversion: 50 ± 2%). This indicated intensification effects of NI excitation over orthodox heating (activation energy: 67.12 kJ/mol). Furthermore, the developed catalyst showed better performance (identified by Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics) in terms of lower esterification activation energy (30 kJ/mol) compared to Amberlyst 15 (48.31 kJ/mol) under NI activation. The developed catalyst also showed 2 times more recycling efficiency compared to Amberlyst 15; thus, enumerating sustainable valorization of slaughterhouse waste for preparation of supported catalysts.