Modelling of the feed-to-fillet transfer of ethoxyquin and one of its main metabolites, ethoxyquin dimer, to the fillet of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar L.)
Ethoxyquin (EQ) is an antioxidant supplemented to feed ingredients, mainly fish meal, which is currently under re-evaluation for use in the food production chain. EQ is partly metabolized into several metabolites of which the ethoxyquin dimer (EQDM) accumulates most in the farmed fish fillet. In this study, the feed-to-fillet transfer of dietary EQ and EQDM in Atlantic salmon fillet was investigated, and a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK-) two-compartmental model was developed, based on experimental determined EQ and EQDM uptake, metabolism, and elimination kinetics. The model was verified with an external data-set and used to simulate the long term (>1.5 years) EQ and EQDM feed-to fillet transfer in Atlantic salmon under realistic farming conditions such as the seasonal fluctuations in feed intake, growth, and fillet fat deposition. The model predictions showed that initial EQDM levels in juvenile fish are the driving factor in final levels found in food-producing animals, while for EQ the levels in feed, and seasonal variations were the driving factor for food EQ levels.