Occurrence and toxigenic potential of Aspergillus section Flavi on wheat and sorghum silages in Uruguay
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Species belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi occur naturally in crops and can cause food spoilage and/or toxin production. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and diversity of the species of Aspergillus section Flavi found in wheat and sorghum at harvest time and during silage storage, and to evaluate the toxigenic potential of the isolates to determine the contamination risk of mycotoxins in grains. Strains from Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus were found based on multi-gene phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report on the presence of A. parasiticus in wheat from Uruguay. Of the 80 isolates Aspergillus section Flavi, 30% produced aflatoxins (AFs), mainly type B1, and 25% produced cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Within the isolates from wheat samples, 35% were AFs producers and 27.5% were CPA producers. Among the Aspergillus section Flavi isolates from sorghum, 25% were AFs producers while 22.5% were CPA producers. This work contributes to the knowledge of the species in crops and helps define appropriate strategies for the prevention and control of contamination with AFs and CPA by Aspergillus section Flavi fungi.