Steric microstructure of mixed-species biofilm formed by interaction between Lactobacillus plantarum ML11-11 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

The mixed-species biofilm of Lactobacillus plantarum ML11-11 (LAB) and yeast had a double-layered structure with the ground layer composed of LAB cells, and the upper layer composed of coaggregates of LAB and yeast cells. The ability of LAB to adhere to both, the solid surface and the yeast cells, enabled the formation and maintenance of the biofilm as an ecosystem for LAB and yeast.