Temporal Trends in the Incidence, Characteristics, and Outcomes of Hanging-Related Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
Aim: The aim of this study was to describe temporal trends in the incidence, characteristics, and outcomes of hanging-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Method: A retrospective study of all hanging-related OHCA in Victoria, Australia, between 2000 and 2017 was conducted. Trends in incidence, characteristics, and outcomes were assessed using linear regression and a non-parametric test for trend, as appropriate. Predictors of survival to hospital discharge were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Between 2000 and 2017, emergency medical services (EMS)-attended 3,891 cases of hanging-related OHCA, of which 876 cases (23%) received an attempted resuscitation. The overall incidence rate of EMS-attended cases was 3.8 cases per 100,000 person-years increasing from 2.3 cases per 100,000 person-years in 2000 to 4.7 cases in 2017 (p for trend <0.001). Incidence rates increased approximately two-fold in young adults (18–44 years) and three-fold in middle aged adults (45–64 years). Despite improvement in the rate of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (from 49% in 2000–2005 to 75% in 2012–2017), the survival to hospital discharge rate remained unchanged (3% overall). Among adult survivors with 12-month follow-up (n = 10), five patients responded to telephone interviews. Of those, three (60%) reported severe functional disability. Five patients responded to telephone interviews, of which 3 patients reported severe functional disability. An initial shockable rhythm (OR 23.17, 95% CI: 5.75, 93.36) or pulseless electrical activity (OR 13.14, 95% CI: 4.79, 36.03) were associated with survival. Conclusion: The incidence of hanging-related OHCA doubled over the 18 year period with no change to survival rates. New preventative strategies are needed to reduce the community burden of these events.