Streptococcus mutans PrsA mediates AtlA secretion contributing to extracellular DNA release and biofilm formation in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis
The role of secretion chaperone-regulated virulence proteins in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis (IE) induced by viridans streptococci such as Streptococcus mutans is unclear. In this study, we investigated the contribution of the foldase protein PrsA, a putative parvulin-type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, to the pathogenesis of S. mutans-induced IE. We found that a prsA-deficient strain had reduced virulence in terms of formation of vegetation on damaged heart valves, as well as reduced autolysis activity, eDNA release and biofilm formation capacity. The secretion and surface exposure of AtlA in vitro was reduced in the prsA-deficient mutant strain, and complementation of recombinant AtlA in the culture medium restored a wild type biofilm phenotype of the prsA-deficient mutant strain. This result suggests that secretion and surface localization of AtlA is regulated by PrsA during biofilm formation. Together, these results demonstrate that S. mutans PrsA could regulate AtlA-mediated eDNA release to contribute to biofilm formation in the pathogenesis of IE.