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Thrombolysis by PLAT/tPA increases serum free IGF1 leading to a decrease of deleterious autophagy following brain ischemia

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journal contribution
posted on 14.09.2021, 19:20 by Audrey M. Thiebaut, Izaskun Buendia, Vanessa Ginet, Eloise Lemarchand, Mehdi Boutagouga Boudjadja, Yannick Hommet, Laurent Lebouvier, Charlotte Lechevallier, Mike Maillasson, Elodie Hedou, Nicole Déglon, Franck Oury, Marina Rubio, Joan Montaner, Julien Puyal, Denis Vivien, Benoit D. Roussel

Cerebral ischemia is a pathology involving a cascade of cellular mechanisms, leading to the deregulation of proteostasis, including macroautophagy/autophagy, and finally to neuronal death. If it is now accepted that cerebral ischemia induces autophagy, the effect of thrombolysis/energy recovery on proteostasis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of thrombolysis by PLAT/tPA (plasminogen activator, tissue) on autophagy and neuronal death. In two in vitro models of hypoxia reperfusion and an in vivo model of thromboembolic stroke with thrombolysis by PLAT/tPA, we found that ischemia enhances neuronal deleterious autophagy. Interestingly, PLAT/tPA decreases autophagy to mediate neuroprotection by modulating the PI3K-AKT-MTOR pathways both in vitro and in vivo. We identified IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor I receptor; a tyrosine kinase receptor) as the effective receptor and showed in vitro, in vivo and in human stroke patients and that PLAT/tPA is able to degrade IGFBP3 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3) to increase IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) bioavailability and thus IGF1R activation.

Abbreviations: AKT/protein kinase B: thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; Hx: hypoxia; IGF1: insulin-like growth factor 1; IGF1R: insulin-like growth factor I receptor; IGFBP3: insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3; Ka: Kainate; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPK/ERK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MTORC1: MTOR complex 1; OGD: oxygen and glucose deprivation; OGDreox: oxygen and glucose deprivation + reoxygentation; PepA: pepstatin A1; PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PLAT/tPA: plasminogen activator, tissue; PPP: picropodophyllin; SCH77: SCH772984; ULK1: unc-51 like kinase 1; Wort: wortmannin